Posters Throughout History III
The third and last article in our series Posters Throughout History. Today we will be talking about the period from Art Deco to today. In case you missed the first two articles, here are the links Part I, Part II.
By the mid 1920’s various modernistic styles merged into a style called Art Deco. It was named after Arts Décoratifs, from the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes (International Exhibition of Modern Decorative and Industrial Arts) held in Paris in 1925. It combined modernist styles with fine craftsmanship and rich materials. During its heyday, Art Deco represented luxury, glamour, exuberance, and faith in social and technological progress.
Eclectic, combining elements even from opposing styles, it main inspiration was modernism: slick lines, angular letter forms, simplified and streamlined shapes. Themes were often speed, power, ocean liners, automobiles etc. Art Deco, like Art Nouveau before it, spread quickly throughout Europe and to the U.S.
WWII and the aftermath
Once again, the poster was a means of propaganda for recruitment and war. However, this time it had the printed media and radio standing side by side with it, spreading indoctrination across the globe.
At the same time, photography took the place of lithography in the visual design of posters. The use of photography in posters, which had begun in the Soviet Union in the Twenties, has now become as common as illustration.
In the Second World War radio and poster functioned complementary. However, after the war, these two became competitors due to the similar function and the similar sphere of interest. Having in mind the increase in television programs, it is easy to explain a decline in poster popularity.
Switzerland offered the last safe haven for the litographic poster, as the government there heavily promoted the printing industry and the poster art. This style was known as Sachplakat or Object Poster Style, which was developed before WWII, but only gained popularity after the war.
Derived from the Plakatstil and surrealist movement, focus was on making everyday objects into the giant icons, and with good old Swiss precision, results were often spectacular trompe l’oeil effect.
Consumer and corporate styles
With the baby boom happening in the Western world after the WWII, the marketing tactics had to change and adapt to the new consumer generation. These changes are best reckognizable in the new styles of the poster art. The styles were named by the authors of “A Brief History of the Poster”- The 50s style (consumer-centric) and the International Typographic style (corporate-centric).
The 50’s style was consumer oriented, intended for a wide audience- therefore it was light-hearted, vivid in colors, humorous, almost cartoon-like and a bit naïve in a way. It was non-offensive and it advertised services as well as the products. The graphic sophistication and eye-catching colors combined with visual puns and irrepressible characters and creatures made it the leading style for product advertising. The most influential poster designers of this style were Herbert Leupin and Donald Brun in Switzerland, Raymond Savignac in France and Paul Rand in the U.S.
The International Typographic style or the Swiss style was created out of the need for worldwide brand-recognition. This is best portrayed through this style’s rational, highly structured and systematic designs.The name itself illustrates the style’s strong reliance on typographic elements, such as: 1) the use of a mathematical grid to provide an overall orderly and unified structure; 2) sans serif typefaces (especially Helvetica, introduced in 1961) in a flush left and ragged right format; 3) black and white photography in place of a drawn illustration.
The style made its debut in the ‘50s in Switzerland and become the predominant graphic style in the world by the ’70s. The leading artists of this style were Muller-Brockmann, Hofmann, Nitsche, Lohse, Ruder, Poretti, Aicher, Bill.
Poster in the 60’s
As opposed to the rational and orderly International typographic style, the styles of the sixties were more chaotic and revolutionary as the Hippie and anti-war thought spread. This new illustration style borrowed the elements from Surrealism, Pop Art and Expressionism and was more relaxed and intuitive- therefore, it paved the way for the first wave of the Post-Modernist sensibility.
The most influential schools in the 60’s were Push Pin Studios (a graphic design and illustration studio formed in New York City in 1954) and the Polish school of poster (in Poland from 50’s through to the 80’s, which had a heavy influence in surrealism in promoting the State-controlled theatre and cultural organizations). The blooming drug culture enabled a brief but spectacular psychedelic poster craze in the U.S., which recalled the floral excesses of Art Nouveau, the pulsating afterimages of Op-Art, and the bizarre juxtapositions of Surrealism. Meanwhile, there was a poster movement in France that took inspiration from the old Soviet propaganda posters and cartoon art.
The domination of the Swiss style, which spread worldwide rapidly after it genesis, led to a new, sort of an ‘opposing’ style in the 70’s and 80’s. The movement itself was much wider and it influenced the Fine arts, Literature, Philosophy, Film-making (amongst others).
This movement is called Post-Modernism. Wolfgang Weingart, young teacher in Basel experimented with the offset printing process to produce posters that appeared complex and chaotic, playful and spontaneous – all in stark contrast to his elders’ teachings.
His liberation of typography was an important foundation for several new styles and also for the advances now being made in computer graphics around the globe. Other groups of the time weren’t as radical, but followed the trend nonetheless.
Although the poster isn’t as relevant nowadays as it was before, it still manages to find its place in the modern society- on the walls of the various buildings, notice boards, on the walls of the teenager’s rooms and so on. With the technology being easily accessible to the wide variety of people, everybody can be a poster-maker nowadays. In the modern digital world, maybe we should redefine the definition of the poster and expand its grasp onto the digital territory.
Can the poster in its digital pre-print mode- having all of its previous characteristics except for the physical form- still be called a poster?
The question that arises is- can various trends on the internet like ‘demotivational posters’ and ‘memes’ be considered a new step in the poster evolution? Are they posters at all, or just a product of a bunch of people having too much time on their hands?